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Student Advising Models and Guided Pathways

Student Advising Models and Guided Pathways

“Guided Pathways” is the buzz phrase in higher ed these days.  Data is showing how a guided pathway’s solution impacts student success and graduation rates, especially at community colleges.  A study by Davis Jenkins and Sung-Woo Cho that was released in 2012 showed more than half of students who entered a program in their first year earned a credential or transferred within 5 years.  For students who did not enter a program until their 3rd year, the success rate was about 20%.

The concept of guided pathways makes a lot of sense.  It’s pretty amazing how often a student will register for a class that does not advance them closer to their academic goals, thus using up precious financial aid.  That being said, it’s a lot of work for an institution to take on.  In this case, it literally takes the entire village.

A guided pathway solution can still allow for customization of course schedules by way of academic plans with default choices.  There are several other benefits in shifting specific programs to a guided pathways route, including:

  • An increase in completion rates through enhanced structure and support for students
  • Optimization of the use of financial aid
  • Defining and assessing learning outcomes for entire programs
  • Faculty working together to create instructional program coherence
  • Students seeing the big picture of their program and how individual components lead to achieving their goals

For this model to be successful, there must be a shift in the overall student support network.  The American Association of Community Colleges states that the guided pathways redesign model should be built on three design principles:

  • Institutions must pay attention to the entire student experience, not just a segment of it
  • This is not an isolated solution in a long list of reforms, rather an opportunity to unify a variety of reform elements
  • Redesign process starts with the end-goal in mind (ie. employment) and then works backward to map out a program

My intention here is to focus on the student service component of the entire ecosystem.  From a student advising perspective, a guided pathways approach elevates the precision needed by student support services.  It’s critical that student services evolve with the guided pathways model.  Below are some key ingredients to consider:

  • Ability to closely monitor student academic plans
  • Automatic alerts that are triggered the minute a student falls off plan
  • Advisors and faculty can intervene early as at-risk indicators identify students who could potentially fail critical courses
  • Advisors and faculty work closely together to monitor and support student progress
  • Students can monitor their progress towards achieving their academic goals

Aviso is a turnkey solution that provides academic planning to support guided pathways, coupled with predictive analytics and an engagement platform that easily places a student’s challenges and achievements right in front of student support staff.  Rather than a reactive and transactional student environment, the intention is for advisors and faculty to focus on measuring outcomes and continuing to fine tune the guided pathways ecosystem.  If you aren’t doing this already, consider conducting a pilot to observe the impact yourself.

Aviso Retention provides analytics, software and expertise to increase student retention and engagement.  Click here to learn more.

Now I’m worried about the DRAIN, not the DRIP

Now I’m worried about the DRAIN, not the DRIP

References to “data rich, information poor” (DRIP) syndrome are ubiquitous; a quick Google search returns articles addressing DRIP in numerous disciplines including education, health care, and water quality management. Organizations suffering from DRIP find themselves awash in data—quantifiable facts and statistics—but lacking information—knowledge obtained through analysis of these data.

Universities and colleges are avoiding DRIP by employing data management procedures that result in consumable, aggregated information. These activities may be the responsibility of an internal office, contracted to an external group, or, as I have found useful, assigned to a mix of both internal and external data professionals.

Following the distillation of relevant information through data analytics, institutions must avoid the next hurdle: “data rich, abundant information, non-action” (DRAIN) syndrome. DRAIN occurs when information lies dormant. This syndrome may be the result of a lack of institutional resources to take on a new project, the inability to navigate institutional silos to prompt action, or poor cross-divisional communication channels for sharing information.

A signal that DRAIN is present is the utterance of the phrase “OK, so what?” or “Interesting” after a quick scan of a report. For example, insights about the success factors for student sub-populations are bundled into reports, shared across departments, viewed with mild curiosity, and then filed away without prompting action.

DRAIN is akin to and sometimes accompanied by “paralysis by analysis.” In this situation, the constant quest for the “perfect data point” stymies any project built on the available information. “If we only knew . . .” has halted action and constricted development of relevant programs many times over.

The best remedy for DRAIN is to prepare a plan to leverage information derived from large data sets. The following steps will assist in developing these types of procedures, and discussion on each step will be addressed in future blog posts on DRAIN.

  1. Determine if the information is actionable
  2. Decide how to employ the information
  3. Pilot programs or outreach
  4. Measure the effectiveness of the program
  5. Revise, expand, or retire the program




About the Author:

Nathan Miller, Ph.D. is the Senior Director for Student Success at Columbia College in Columbia, MO. In this role he is responsible for the design, implementation of student success programming for a diverse and geographically disparate student population.

Plan B, C……and D.

Plan B, C……and D.

Straight lines do not occur in nature. It’s true. So why should we be surprised that our own life paths twist, wrinkle, and veer as they do? For success coaches and students, this means learning how to navigate roadblocks, and sometimes even failures, successfully. What should we tell students who have failed one or more courses, lost their athletic eligibility due to academic standing, or been asked to leave the university?

First, I remind my students that roadblocks are opportunities in disguise. This can seem like facile, Pollyanna-ish advice, but it doesn’t mean it’s any less true. Failures force us to turn a magnifying glass on ourselves. They make us ask questions. Re-assess. Recalibrate. And it is this kind of introspection that gives us the new information that will help us move forward more successfully in the future.

For example, over the holidays I got a call from a student I worked with over two years ago. We had worked together for the entirety of his freshman year, and while he had maintained that progress his sophomore year, during his junior year he slipped back into an academic hole and was eventually asked to leave school. I hadn’t heard from him in a long time, but when I answered the phone, it was the same smiling baritone on the other end. “Mrs. Marion,” he began, “I just wanted to call and say thank you for all you did for me back then.” One of the things he’d had trouble with in the past was organizing his work time. It just took him longer to get the work done than many other students, and with four or five classes at a time in addition to his sport, he often found himself overwhelmed, and once he got overwhelmed, it was hard not to want to throw up his hands and just stop doing anything. He told me over the phone that he had been enrolled in community college for the past two years, taking only one to two courses at a time in order to give each the focus and time he needed to pass the class. And had he been passing, I asked? Straight As and Bs, he reported! Failure had made him really look at his work process. Certainly he also needed a little time to learn how to multi-task, but by recognizing that his pace might just be a little slower than a five-course schedule allows, he was able to set himself up for success at his new school.

When my students fail a course or are asked to leave school, we first look back. What was the issue? Time management? Interest in the material? Difficulty level of material? Too much time in the frat house and not enough in the library? Then we look at options. Knowing what we know now, what is the best way to move forward? Should a student take the class again or not? Perhaps a change in major is on the table. Can a student enroll in community college for a while and then return to a 4-year university? Some students simply need more time to figure out what they truly want from a college education? Every student’s path is different. Straight lines do not occur in nature, and there is more than one way through the forest to the castle.

The Inner Critic of the Success Coaching Student

The Inner Critic of the Success Coaching Student

I’d like to make a confession. I cannot do a roll up.

A little clarification: a “roll up” is a Pilates exercise where, using only your abs, you go from lying flat on your back to sitting straight up with your legs out in front of you. And I cannot do one. I couldn’t do one a year ago, I can’t do one today, and I probably won’t be able to do one a month from now. So I shouldn’t have been surprised a few days ago in my Pilates class when I failed to do a rollup yet again. And, to be fair, I wasn’t surprised, but I was angry. Frustrated. Embarrassed. “You should be able to do this by now!” a certain voice I know well said. “This is pathetic!” it continued. “And look how much one-on-one time the teacher is giving you because of it. I bet everyone else is annoyed with you for hogging attention and slowing the class down!” Now, I don’t know if that is what the other students in the class were thinking, but I do know a thing or two about the voice speaking to me for, you see, it has lived with me a long time. It is my inner critic or, as I like to call it, simply “mean voice.” Mean voice loves to tell us that we’re not good enough or smart enough or strong enough. I’ve got one. You’ve got one. And you better believe that success coaching students have one.

My “mean voice” incident during Pilates class reminded me just how pernicious this inner critic can be, especially when a student is struggling to overcome real obstacles to their college goals. Mean voice is quick to take any small setback as proof that- “see? I was right! You can’t do it after all!” The problem comes when students are unable to see mean voice as just one of the contributors to the ever-convening city council meeting in all of our heads. When we see mean voice as simply “reality,” we don’t realize that there are other valid perspectives to consider.

I had a student a few years back whose academic struggles during her first semester at school seemed insurmountable. “I just can’t do the work,” she would tell me time and time again. And she was not wrong. But I also knew that she had come from a high school that had not prepared her very well for college.  Because few of us understand things outside our realm of experience, she didn’t realize how poorly her high school programs had served her. So when she got to college and found herself underwater, she just assumed it must be a fundamental problem with her own brain, with her mean voice always including a dangerous (and dangerously convincing) because at the end of the sentence. “You can’t do the work because you’re not smart enough,” it told her, when in reality she was fighting uphill against a lack of preparedness that was largely not her fault.

So how do any of us, including success students, deal with our mean voices? All but the few truly enlightened among us lack the power to completely eliminate them, so how do we live with these voices without giving them the power and influence they crave? The first step, I tell my students, is to recognize the voice for what it is: one perspective of many. Once you’ve recognized your mean voice, give it a good sizing up. That way, the next time you get a poor grade on a paper and that same old refrain comes along…”of course you failed! You always fail! This just confirms everything I’ve told you about how worthless you are.”…you can say, “Hey, Cool it, okay? I’ve heard this song before.”

Once you’ve quieted the mean voice, listen for the other voices in the room. In that space you might find Logic, who says, “well, we failed that one, but we’ve got to admit we didn’t study as much as we probably should have.” Or perhaps Gentle, who reminds us, “hey. This was a bad one, but this stuff is hard and we’re making progress, even if it’s slow.” You may even find Real Kindness in there somewhere, I tell them. And once Real Kindness’ voice is heard, you’re really on the road to positive change.

The Skills of an Online Success Coach

The Skills of an Online Success Coach

When I flew to and from my various holiday travel destinations a few weeks ago, my boarding pass was a simple bar code on my phone. While on the plane, I connected to the mobile hotspot from tens of thousands of feet in the air so as to keep up with email during the flight. When I landed, I immediately placed an order on grubhub so that the moment I got home, jet-lagged and hungry, a steaming container of Pad Thai would arrive right at my door.

Yes, I now feel like I have enough facility with these technologies that I can utilize them with ease and convenience, but it wasn’t always that way. With each new technology there is a natural learning curve, and that fact is no different when it pertains to online education. Online learning is still fairly new, and there are many ways in which success coaches of online students provide aid and information crucial to a student’s ultimate success. The first is very technical; that is, success coaches for online students are there to help them with the job of learning how to learn online! What are the technologies and software programs with which one must be familiar? How do they work? How does one do things like join discussion threads, contact other students or professors, or turn in work? Many students do not know that professors have the ability to know not only exactly when they are logged-in but for how long. They discover that papers are almost always turned in nowadays via software that checks them for evidence of plagiarism. Success coaches can also be helpful in the area of resource location. Coaches can show students how to access resources like online tutoring and group study sessions which they might not already know about.

In addition to helping students navigate the “nuts and bolts” of online education, success coaches can act as liaisons to effective communication, helping students develop the confidence to connect directly with professors and fellow students who they have never met and likely will never meet. Some students may have a naturally easier time with this precisely because communication is remote. Take the student who feels too shy to ask a question in front of a room full of people but who is much more assertive or proactive online. He may feel much more comfortable emailing a professor than walking into his or her office for office hours. She may contribute to an online discussion thread in a way that she wouldn’t have dreamed in a live setting. On the other hand, some people are less comfortable communicating in what, to them, can seem at first like an impersonal or remote forum. Some of these students are simply insecure about using the technology, while others are just the kind of people who do better with face to face communication. With these students, success coaches can teach students how to communicate effectively in a written-only context, or we can guide them toward resources like Skype that get them a little closer to the “in the room” experience.

Of course, as citizens of an increasingly tech-savvy world, all students, even those who may have been out of school for years or even decades, have some experience interacting online. But that doesn’t mean that we should take for granted that incoming online students already know how it all works. Like all new things, there is a learning curve, and we must acknowledge, address, and aid our students as best we can in their online journeys.

For those for whom that curve might seem an insurmountable ascent, more mountain that mole hill, I remind them that every journey begins with a single step. Step 1: turn on the computer. 

Susan Marion is the Coordinator for Success Coaches at Tiffin University, in Tiffin, Ohio. She was instrumental in starting success coaching at the institution in 2007.  The program now has fifteen part-time success coaches and supports almost one hundred students who are at risk academically.

The Success Coach and Professor Relationship

The Success Coach and Professor Relationship

No man is an island, and no success coach is a one-man band. In addition to partnering with our students, effective success coaching is very much about forming relationships with administrators, athletic coaches and, most importantly, professors. That’s why at the midpoint of every semester, we ask our professors to fill out progress reports on each and every one of our students. These reports provide us first and foremost with objective information- whether a student is really going to class, turning in assignments, and submitting adequate work. They also, however, give professors an opportunity to add additional comments in which they can make subjective observations about a student’s performance, raise concerns, and even provide suggestions.

These comments have proved invaluable time and again. Sometimes they reveal realities that students have been trying to conceal. (Ah, so your claim that you haven’t missed a class in weeks, sir, turns out to be factually inaccurate!) Sometimes the issue is relatively simple: a student is turning in work on time but never seems to proofread it. Sometimes a professor will help us get closer to the root of a deeper problem. Perhaps the student seems to understand the material but just doesn’t pay attention in class. Perhaps he or she is focused in class but just fundamentally does NOT understand the material. Professors are our eyes and ears on the ground, and through their observations and suggestions, success coaches are more easily and efficiently able to help our students identify issues and work to correct them.

Professors, however, much like the rest of us, aren’t huge fans of filling out paperwork for seemingly no reason, and awhile ago I received an email from a professor basically asking, “how do I know that success coaches are actually DOING something with the information I am taking time out of my already busy day to provide?” It was a fair question, and so we tweaked our program so that communication began to flow in both directions. We now send emails to all of the professors working with students in the success coaching program that let them know exactly how their commentary informs and guides our work.

This process begins with us going over the progress reports with each student. If a student has been telling a story that comes into direct contrast with something the professor has said, we address it immediately. As someone with decades of both teaching and parenting experience, I can sniff out a lie or a half-truth pretty consistently, but there are times I’ve had students who were able to put one over on me…for awhile. No one likes to be caught in a lie, but once he or she is, the culprit is generally much less likely to try it again. We do not do this to shame students but to shine a light on the realities of the situation. Then, it’s time to make a plan. For example, let’s say a student is in trouble primarily because he is not going to class. First, we sit down and figure out WHY that is. One might assume that a student like this is simply some combination of lazy or undisciplined, but I’ve had not a few students for whom not going to class was part of a much larger, more complicated whole. One student I worked with admitted to being entirely confused during lectures, and that level of incomprehension made him feel ashamed which, of course, is not a particularly wonderful feeling. In order to avoid the feeling, he had decided to avoid class altogether- an understandable impulse, of course, but not necessarily a useful one. For other students, this plan can involve anything from seeking tutoring, planning out study time at the beginning of each week, giving themselves more time than they thought they needed to do assigned reading or to write papers, and setting earlier alarms so they can be out of the door with enough time to get to class.

Now that professors know not only that their input is appreciated but also precisely how we use it to help our students pass their classes, they have become even more willing to fill out midterm progress reports. That’s an unequivocally good thing, since we are all part of the team of people doing our best to ensure that as many students as possible leave our university with a cap, a gown, a diploma, and a smile on his or her face.

Susan Marion is the Coordinator for Success Coaches at Tiffin University, in Tiffin, Ohio. She was instrumental in starting success coaching at the institution in 2007.  The program now has fifteen part-time success coaches and supports almost one hundred students who are at risk academically.

Online Success Coaches: Experiences of an Online Success Coach

Online Success Coaches: Experiences of an Online Success Coach

The following profiles are culled from the experiences of online success coach Deana Brown. She and I sat down awhile ago to chat about her experiences in the job, and she told me about some of her most memorable students.

“Tamara was a single mother in her mid-20s who worked as a cashier at a big box store. Her profile was far from unique- she and most of the people she knew were high school graduates (and some drop-outs) who had spent the years since starting to raise children while working in largely minimum-wage “survival jobs.” But Tamara had bigger ambitions. She wanted to be a judge some day, and that dream is what brought her into my life as an online success coach working with people trying to get their associates’ degrees. Tamara’s goals were commendable but her first semester work had been less so, and when she and I began working together she was on academic probation. Like many “first-in-the-family” college students, Tamara didn’t have a lot of experience navigating some of the challenges of college life (online or off): time management, study skills, and effective communication with professors. Add to that the fact that a lot of the learning in online classes is, for the most part, self-generated, and it’s easy to see why these students can find themselves falling behind. Tamara was exceptionally bright, but earning a college degree while also working full-time and raising a son is already difficult without these extra roadblocks. So, with Tamara, our primary job was one of planning. Each week, when Tamara would get her work schedule for the week ahead, we would carve out time for schoolwork. Could she spend a little time reading that online lecture before she left to pick up her son from school? Could she use the momentum created by helping him with his homework to do some of her own afterwards? We also talked about how to plan ahead. If a paper is due on Friday and you plan to begin it Thursday afternoon, what happens if you hit a snag and need clarification from the professor? There is generally a 24-48hr response delay for professor emails, and by then it would be too late to get your question answered before the paper is due. Within a semester, Tamara was not only set to get off academic probation but also she was making straight As.”

“Mark was a federal corrections officer in his 40s. He had worked as a guard as well as in administrative management at the prison for over a decade, and it was clear he had been shaped by the culture. Now working towards getting a degree in criminal justice online, he talked and wrote like someone for whom communication was all about economy and power. Managers and guards, he explained to me, spoke aggressively and without mincing words to inmates, but they also used basically the same kind of language with one another. Unfortunately, this presented Mark with some challenges when it came to communicating effectively with fellow students and professors in his online courses. Mark’s aggressive writing style, combined with the fact that it is already naturally difficult to convey tone and intention in written communication anyway, meant that many of Mark’s communications came across as angry demands. So we worked on how to approach people politely and effectively through text. There was the classic list of do’s and don’ts: don’t write in all caps, make good choices about punctuation, don’t begin emails with “So….,” as in- “So…I need this thing from you and you need to give it to me!” But we also talked more in-depth about the reasons why this type of communication is so much more effective not just in an academic environment but in a professional one. If every time you hit a roadblock you get angry and lash out, you are far less likely, in the end, to move up into greater positions of power and responsibility.”

These profiles demonstrate something we already know- that no two students are exactly alike. There are as many unique stories as there are students, which is why it’s important for success coaches to have as many tools at their disposal as possible. However, if there is one unifying piece of advice Deana would give to a new success coach on his or her first day, it’s this: “Listen carefully and take notes. This can take great patience sometimes, but before you try to jump to conclusions or provide solutions, make sure you take in their entire story. Then work together to make a plan, for if students are invested in the process of discovering for themselves what they need and how to get it, they will be more invested and motivated towards their own success.”

Susan Marion is the Coordinator for Success Coaches at Tiffin University, in Tiffin, Ohio. She was instrumental in starting success coaching at the institution in 2007.  The program now has fifteen part-time success coaches and supports almost one hundred students who are at risk academically.